Metabolism of stanozolol: Chemical synthesis and.

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metabolites of stanozolol 10mg

Stanozolol , commonly sold under the name Winstrol (oral) and Winstrol Depot (intramuscular), is a synthetic anabolic steroid derived from dihydrotestosterone . It was developed by American pharmaceutical company Winthrop Laboratories (Sterling Drug) in 1962, and has been approved by the FDA [1] for human use.

Unlike most injectable anabolic steroids, stanozolol is not esterified and is sold as an aqueous suspension, or in oral tablet form. The drug has a high oral bioavailability , due to a C17 α-alkylation which allows the hormone to survive first-pass liver metabolism when ingested. It is because of this that stanozolol is also sold in tablet form.

Stanozolol has been used in both animal and human patients for a number of conditions. In humans, it has been demonstrated to be successful in treating anaemia and hereditary angioedema . Veterinarians may prescribe the drug to improve muscle growth, red blood cell production, increase bone density and stimulate the appetite of debilitated or weakened animals.

Stanozolol is one of the anabolic steroids commonly used as performance-enhancing drugs and is banned from use in sports competition under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and many other sporting bodies. Additionally, stanozolol has been used in US horse racing . [2]

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The key to understanding anabolic steroid detection times lies in the ability to learn about and understand how drug testing for anabolic steroids and performance enhancing drugs works, and what exactly are the factors involved in affecting anabolic steroid detection times. Drug testing for anabolic steroids and related performance enhancing drugs is one of the most misunderstood topics and concepts by both the average individual as well as those athletes, bodybuilders, and individuals who actually use anabolic steroids. There are in fact a few popular misconceptions in regards to anabolic steroid testing .

The very expensive procedures (and equipment) for the purpose of anabolic steroid detection involves the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and even liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [1] [2] [3] [4] . These are all extremely expensive procedures and pieces of equipment, costing millions of dollars in order to test perhaps only a handful of individuals.

This is evidenced in history during the Olympics, where East Germany ran a state-sponsored program known as State Plan Research Theme 14.25, which as a program designed to circumvent the IOC testing procedures and have all of their Olympic athletes (both knowingly and unknowingly) utilizing anabolic steroids in an effort to undetectably gain an advantage over other competitors [7] . The East German government implemented this program and ran it for over 20 years, and involved the use of undetectable (at the time) anabolic steroids, due to their relatively new development and unknown status.

Steroid detection times can be influenced by many different factors, mostly involving the different metabolic pathways and excretion methods. Anabolic steroid detection times can be influenced by the type of anabolic steroid used, the specific properties of that anabolic steroid, the dose, the duration of use, and route of administration (oral or injectable).

An understanding of metabolism is pivotal to comprehending the phenotypic behavior of all living organisms (including humans) where metabolism is integral to health and proper functioning. Metabolites are the intermediate products of metabolic reactions catalyzed by various enzymes that naturally occur within cells. This term is usually used to describe small molecules, although broader application is often practiced.

Primary metabolites are synthesized by the cell because they are indispensable for their growth. Significant representatives are amino acids, alcohols, vitamins (B2 and B12), polyols, organic acids, as well as nucleotides (e.g. inosine-5'-monophosphate and guanosine-5'-monophosphate).

Secondary metabolites are compounds produced by an organism that are not required for primary metabolic processes, although they can have important ecologic and other functions. They include drugs, fragrances, flavor, dye, pigments, pesticides and food additives with applications in agriculture, industry and pharmaceuticals.

Arachidonic acid is a metabolite of prostaglandin and both molecules contain similar functional groups, have similar physical properties and demonstrate nearly identical formulas. In addition, both compounds are linked by a defined series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions with a logical progression of chemical change. Inosine-5'-monophosphate is a metabolite that arises by condensing two or more intermediates (namely phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate and glutamine) with a one way directionality based on the principles of free energy exchange.

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Stanozolol is used in the treatment of hereditary angioedema, which causes episodes of swelling of the face, extremities, genitals, bowel wall, and throat. Stanozolol may decrease the frequency and severity of these attacks.

In rare cases, serious and even fatal cases of liver problems have developed during treatment with stanozolol. Contact your doctor immediately if you experience abdominal pain, light colored stools, dark colored urine, unusual fatigue, nausea or vomiting, or yellowing of the skin or eyes. These may be early signs of liver problems.

Stanozolol is in the FDA pregnancy category X. This means that stanozolol is known to cause birth defects in an unborn baby. Do not take this medication if you are pregnant or could become pregnant during treatment.

It is not known whether stanozolol passes into breast milk. Do not take this medication without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

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